How Organizations use ICT

In this unit, you will gain an understanding of how organisations use ICT. You should be able to describe a number of ways in which organizations use ICT, and be able to describe and discuss the hardware and software requirements of each.
You should also be able to talk about the applications that these uses can be put to. This means that you will need to do a great deal of research, both directed (in class) and independent. Make sure that all you research is documented,
either on Video Evidence Sheets, Website Evidence Sheets or in your notes..If you choose to make notes, make sure that you give your notes sensible headingsand sub headings, and that you illustrate the notes with images or drawings.

2.1(a) : Control Systems

This lesson introduces the concept of the continual feedback loop, where the output directly affects the input of a process. You will investigate refrigeration, air conditioning and central heating systems, learning the input, processing and output requirements of each as well as becoming familiar with the hardware and software required.
Lesson Introduction

Click here for the presentation
Resources to help you:
  1. How Stuff Works: Refrigeration
  2. Video: How air conditioning works (below)

Video 2: How AC units work (below)

Video 3: How a Home Comfort System works

Video 4:

You will need to work through this presentation independently:
Control Systems for Students

Click here to download the presentation

2.1(b) : Car Manufacture

Most cars are manufactured by robotic arms. Robots can work 24/7, and consistently produce products of the same high standard. Robotic arms can be programmed to do many different tasks, and in this lesson you will learn the anatomy of a robotic arm, how it is programmed, and the advantages of robots in industry. You will need to watch the four videos embedded below, in addition to the four listed on the right.



Resources to help you:

  1. How Stuff Works: Electric Motors
  2. The Robotic Arm
  3. Search for End Effectors on YouTube
  4. Prototyping - Creating the world's first printed car!
  5. BBC Learning Zone Use this site to make notes on the following questions: How has ICT changed the role of a press officer? How does ICT help those working on the production line?
Lesson Introduction

Click here for the presentation
Video 1: Microprocessors and Robots

Video 2: How a robotic arm is made

Video 3: Robotic arms in vehicle inspection

Video 4: Cell phone assembly

Video 5: ICT in the Car Industry

Other videos:

  1. Industrial Robotics
  2. Car manufacture
  3. Robot Production Line
  4. BMW assembly plant footage

2.1(c) : Medical Applications

ICT is widely used to monitor patients in hospitals. You need to be able to describe the hardware and software used in medical monitoring, along with the type of processing/process control that is used.
Lesson Intro

Click here for the powerpoint presentation
Resources to help you:
  1. ICT in Intensive Care Units
  2. Monitors, sensors and devices in ICU
  3. Robotic Surgery
  4. Video: ICT in Medical Applications (below)


2.1(d) : Process Control

This lesson looks at the ways in which industrial processes are controlled by computers & microprocessors.
There are three types of Process Control: Batch process control, Discrete process control, and Continuous process control.
For each of these, you need to be able to identify the hardware and software involved, and be able to describe the applications of their use. You should try and search for other examples of these types of control in order to broaden your own knowledge and understanding.
Lesson Introduction

Click here for the lesson intro

Resources to help you:

  1. Powerpoint Presentation
  2. Worksheet
  3. Fact sheet
  4. EWT - how NASA uses Embedded Web Technology
  5. Embedded Web Technology - adding a new dimension to Protection & Control
  6. EWT - A NASA spin-off
Video 1: Batch Process Control: Cereal Production

Video 2: Batch Process Control - Confectionery Manufacture

Video 3: Continuous Process Control: Paper production

Video 4: Continous Process Control: Industrial Refrigeration

Video 5: Continuous Process Control - Refining Crude Oil

Video 6: Discrete process Control: Engine Building

Video 7: Closed Loop Control Systems - GPS

Powerpoint for Students: Click Here

Click here for the presentation

2.2 : Working Practices

In this unit you will look at the ways in which ICT has changed the face of work. Instead of needing to physically go into an office every day, increasing numbers of people are now teleworking, or working remotely. Even in the office, ICT has changed the way that people work, thanks to video conferencing, phone conferencing, instant messaging and other new technologies.
You need to be able to dicuss the hardware and software that has made these changes possible, in addition to the effects of these on managers, staff and site workers. there is a lot of information in this unit, and you should allow six 40-minute lessons (plus homework time) to complete it.
Working Practices

Click here for the presentation.

Resources to help you:

  1. Working Practices powerpoint presentation (right)
  2. Video conferencing & phone conferencing powerpoint presentation (right)
  3. Interactive presentation: ICT & Employment (right)
  4. Weblink: How VPNs work
  5. Weblink: How teleworking has changed the face of work
  6. Weblink: Setting up phone conferencing
  7. Worksheet 1 Link: click here
  8. Worksheet 2
  9. Worksheet 3
  10. Worksheet 4
  11. Video : Teleworking
  12. Video : Teleworking for the disabled
  13. Video : Virtual Private Matrix
  14. Video : Why you still need an office
  15. Video : Videoconferencing
  16. Video : Phone conferencing
  17. Video : Instant Messaging
  18. Other videos (below)
Video Conferencing & Phone Conferencing

Click here for the presentation.

Video 1 : using ICT to work from home

Video 2: Teleworking - is it suitable for everyone?

Video 3: Technology behind business - working from home

Video 4: Working from home - advantages and disadvantages

Video 5: The benefits of video conferencing

Video 6: Phone conferencing

Video 7: Electronic Faxing

Interactive presentation

Click here for the presentation.

2.3 : ICT in Advertising

ICT is the main media of advertising in the modern world. ICT is the broad term used to describe Information and communication technologies. Some of these include radio, T.V, Newspapers, Internet, e.t.c . All of these media are used for advertising products and services.The role of ICT in advertising cannot be underplayed in our modern world. ICT has created totally new and innovative ways of reaching massive - and growing - numbers of potential clients than ever envisioned by any other media form. From TV and radio advertising, through the use of web directories and web sites, to advertising on other peoples' websites as well as through traditional printed media such as flyers, posters and leaflets, ICT offers a multitude of advertising methods..You need to be able to identify the advantages and disadvantages of these different media, to people, businesses, governments and other organizations.

Resources to help you:
  1. Advertising on the Web
  2. How Web Advertising Works
  3. Internet advertising vs traditional advertising
  4. E-How: Television vs Internet advertising
  5. 5 methods of advertising online
  6. How web advertising differs from print advertising
  7. Worksheet (you will need to print this out)
  8. Video: How the Internet is changing Advertising (below)
  9. Video : the power of advertising (below)
...........................................Video 1: How thw Internet is changing Advertising

Video 2: the Power of Advertising


2.4 : ICT in Teaching and Learning

ICT has changed the face of education in many ways, and the consequences are far reaching. Most profoundly, the role of the teacher is changing from instructor to facilitator, and students are looking for a far more personalised approach to learning.
external image computer.gif
ICT doesn't just mean computers, it means any form of information and communications technology from a simple MP3 player to the entire Internet.
This unit explores the use of ICT in school for a number of purposes:
  • As an information source - CD ROMs, the internet, intranets etc
  • As an administration tool - registers, records, assessments, analysis etc
  • As a communication tool : email, instant messaging etc
  • As a learning tool
  • As a means of facilitating distance learning
You need to be able to describe the hardware & software required in addition to the advantages and disadvantages of using ICT in education.
Interactive presentation
1 - ICT in Education (presentation 1)
Presentation 2
2 - ICT in Education (presentation 2).

Resources to help you:

  1. Notes page & Mind map
  2. Worksheet
  3. Homework
  4. Four Powerpoint presentations (see right)
  5. Podcast - click here:
  6. Videos (below)
  • Video 1: ICT in Teaching & Learning

  • Video 2: CAL/CBL

  • Video 3: CBT/CAI

  • Video 4: CMC

  • Video 5: Innovative Schools

  • Video 6: The evolution of technology and teaching

  • Video 7: The connected classroom

  • Video 8: Interhigh - the totally online school

Presentation 3
3 - ICT in Education (presentation 3)
Presentation 4
4 - ICT in Education (presentation 4)

2.5: The use of ICT in publishing

ICT has changed the face of publishing - from the way that journalists work, through newspaper and magazine production, to book publishing and beyond. Many different processes have been affected:
  • the way that images are gathered and editied
  • the ways in which text is created or edited
  • layout of pages
  • transmission of copy to the editors
  • typesetting and the creation of plates for printing
  • transmission of newspapers etc to the printing plants
  • printing processes
You need to understand the application of ICT in every aspect of publishing, and should be able to discuss the hardware and software required at each step.

Resources to help you:

  1. Powerpoint presentations (see right)
  2. How it was done before ICT: traditional printing
  3. How Stuff Works: Newspapers
  4. How newspaper production works
  5. Newspaper distribution
  6. How electronic ink works
  7. The printing process
  8. Video 1 - History of Printing
  9. Video 2 - plate making
  10. Video 3 - ICT in the Real World: Publishing a Magazine
  11. Video 4 - Magazine Design, Production & Printing
  12. Video 5 - How Magazine Printing Works
  13. Video 6 - How commercial printing works
  14. Video 7 - Roll the Presses! Newspaper Production
  15. Video 8 - How It's Made : Books
  16. Video 9 - Book Printing (below)

Lesson Intro

Click to open presentation
Interactive presentation

Click here to open

2.6 : The use of ICT in Time Management

Any project needs careful management - whether the eventual aim is to cook a roast dinner or build a suspension bridge. You need to consider - and keep track of - time, money, deadlines, people, systems.... and the bigger the project, the more of a headache it can be to stay on top of. ICT has the answer, of course: there are a number of ICT based tools and techniques that facilitate efficient and effective time and project management.
You need to be able to describe the various tools and techniques that can be used, and discuss the ways in which they can help a business or organization manage time and projects.

Resources to help you:

  1. Powerpoint presentation
  2. Notes sheet - use this to help you make notes from the presentation and your text book
  3. Exam questions
  4. Website 1: Use the links on the left to read about all the different tools and techniques that this software offers.
  5. Website 2:
  6. Website 3:
  7. Videos (below)
...................1 - Project Management Tutorial

...................2 - Making a Gantt Chart with Excel

...................3 - Making a Gantt chart with a visual indicator

...................3 - Project Management Part 2

...................4 - Gantt charts and PERT charts

..................5 - Time Management Software (below)

Lesson Introduction

Click here for the presentation

ICT in Time Management 2

Use the information in the presentations (above) and the information on this link to help you complete the worksheet.


2.7 : The use of ICT in Data Management

Data is the lifeblood of most businesses and organizations. They collect and store data so that it can be processed (sorted, filtered, searched) to give information.
Some databases exist solely to process data automatically – think of Utility companies who need to create bills at the end of every month - while others exist to give us information when we need it: for example, the school database. The purpose of any database obviously affects the way that data is stored, organized and retrieved.
This is a demanding unit of work which will require careful thought and plenty of reading. You will learn about:
  1. Sequential file systems (batch processing e.g. payroll);
  2. Indexed sequential & random access files (e.g. . payroll and personnel records.
  3. Relational database systems (e.g. customer database linked to sales records)
You should be able to describe these systems, giving the hardware and software requirements and examples of where they are used.

Resources to help you:

  1. Powerpoint presentation
  2. File Systems - Fact Sheet
  3. Types of database - Fact sheet
  4. Database Management Systems - Fact sheet
  5. Powerpoint presentation - Uses of Database management systems
  6. Powerpoint presentation: How organizations use ICT
  7. Powerpointpresentation: Use of ICT in Data Management
  8. Exam questions
  9. Video 1: Introduction to databases

Click here for the presentation

2.8 : ICT in Payroll Applications

All businesses and organizations have employees. All employees need to be paid at the end of every week or month. Payroll systems are used to calculate the salaries, print the payslips and create financial reports. You need to have an understanding of how payroll systems work along with the hardware and software required. You also need to be able to describe the types of processing and file storage involved.
Resources to help you:
  1. Starter: Read the following three web pages to revise basic payroll stuff.
  2. Payroll Systems
  3. Payroll Process
  4. Payroll Databases
  5. Work through the ten pages of this website, making notes: Click here
  6. Presentation 1
  7. Presentation 2
  8. Presentation 3
  9. Video: ePayroll

Click here for the introductory powerpoint

2.9: Technical and Customer Support

Resources to help you:
  1. Website link 1: Services provided by ICT Technical Support teams in schools